In Japan, there are several types of taxes on corporate income, including national and local taxes. First, we will look at each tax category and tax rate individually.
Corporate income tax
Corporate income tax is a national tax levied on corporate income. The tax base is the amount of taxable income, and the tax rates are as follows.
|SME||The portion of income less than 8 million yen per year||19%|
|The portion of income exceeding 8 million yen per year||23.2%|
Local corporate tax
Local corporate tax is a national tax, although it has “local” in its name. The tax base is the amount of corporate tax, and the tax rate is 10.3%.
This tax is levied by prefectural and municipal governments on corporations that have a place of business in the city. This tax is levied not only on the head office where the corporation is registered, but also on each of its branches, offices, etc.
Unlike resident tax rates for individuals, the one for corporations are set independently by each municipality within certain limits.
In the case of Tokyo, the limiting tax rate is 10.4%, and the tax base is the amount of corporate tax.
However, for corporations with capital of 100 million yen or less and annual CIT amount of 10 million yen or less, the limiting tax rate is 7%.
Corporate enterprise tax
Corporate enterprise tax is a tax levied by the prefectural government on businesses conducted by corporations in accordance with the Local Tax Law.
This tax is very complicated to calculate, but the tax rate is roughly 4.7% to 10%, depending on the attributes of the corporation and various other conditions, and the tax base is the amount of taxable income.
Effective corporate tax rate
These tax items above should be considered together with the company’s tax burden. Since only enterprise taxes can be included as a deductible expense in the calculation of corporate income taxes, simply summing the tax rates of each tax item is not an accurate way to determine the tax burden rate.
The effective tax rate is determined by the following formula. As an example, here is a case of a company with capital of 10 million yen and annual taxable income of 8 million yen.
- Corporate income tax rate (CIT) : 19%
- Local corporate tax rate (LCT) : 10.3%
- Resident tax (RT) : 7%
- Enterprise tax (ET) : 9.59%
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